As body water drops, so does aerobic power. In fact, by the time you’re thirsty you’re already about 2% below optimal body water, which can result in an 11% reduction in power output. To maximize power and maintain power, stay hydrated.
When you examine the history of sports medicine research (and even primary medicine research), the participants have been primarily 18- to 22-year-old college-aged men; thus the results are applicable for the young male population. Throughout history, it has been widely accepted that generalizations from this research on the male population are fine for women.